The Trump administration is touting the effectiveness of Operation Warp Speed. During an interview Monday, President Trump said a coronavirus vaccine could be ready by the end of October. The President then highlighted candidates from Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson and Moderna, while noting they are in the later stages of development.
HHS Secretary Alex Azar and Assistant Secretary Brett Giror praised the administration’s coronavirus response. They said COVID-19 numbers across the board are going down.
Three vaccines in phase three and a fourth one is starting imminently. Two of those vaccines in the U.S. have their phase three trials almost fully recruited to the original plan.
Huge volcanic eruptions 233 million years ago pumped carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour into the atmosphere. This series of violent explosions, on what we now know as the west coast of Canada, led to massive global warming. New research has revealed that this was a planet-changing mass extinction event that killed off many of the dominant tetrapods and heralded the dawn of the dinosaurs. But it was not only the dinosaurs that were given a foothold. Many modern tetrapod groups, such as turtles, lizards, crocodiles and mammals date back to this newly discovered time of revolution.
Geologists and palaeontologists agree on a roster of five such events, of which the end-Cretaceous mass extinction was the last. So our new discovery of a previously unknown mass extinction might seem unexpected. And yet this event, termed the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE), seems to have killed as many species as the giant asteroid did. Ecosystems on land and sea were profoundly changed, as the planet got warmer and drier.
The very first human beings originally emerged in Africa before spreading across Eurasia about 60,000 years ago.
Eastern regions of Eurasia are home to approximately 2.3 billion people today—roughly 30% of the world's population. Archeologists know from fossils and artifacts that modern humans have occupied Southeast Asia for 60,000 years and East Asia for 40,000 years.
One of the DNA sequences came from leg bones of the Tianyuan Man, a 40,000-year-old individual discovered in western Beijing. One of the earliest modern humans found in East Asia, his genetic sequence marks him as an early ancestor of today's Asians and Native Americans. His location indicates that the ancestors of today's Asians began placing roots in East Asia as early as 40,000 years ago.
Colliding neutron stars do not create as many of the chemical elements in the Universe as has been assumed, according to a trio of astronomers writes in a paper in The Astrophysical Journal. Another stellar process is responsible for making most of the heavy ones. "Neutron star mergers did not produce enough heavy elements in the early life of the Universe, and they still don’t now, 14 billion years later. The Universe didn’t make them fast enough to account for their presence in very ancient stars, and, overall, there are simply not enough collisions going on to account for the abundance of these elements around today."
All hydrogen and a lot of helium and lithium were created by the Big Bang, but other naturally occurring elements are made by different nuclear processes inside stars. Stars smaller than about eight times the mass of the Sun produce carbon, nitrogen and fluorine, as well as half of all the elements heavier than iron. Half of those that are heavier than iron are thought to be made when neutron stars, the superdense remains of burnt-out suns, crash into one another. However, the new study suggests that heavy elements are created by unusual supernovae that collapse while spinning very fast and generating strong magnetic fields.
The study is the first to attempt to calculate the stellar origins of all naturally occurring elements from first principles, and even produced a new-look Periodic Table, showing the origins of elements from carbon to uranium.
These electrode implants will allow people with a dysfunctional inner ear to hear again.
Cochlear implants and similar devices do not help people whose inner ear is damaged or whose auditory nerve does not function properly. For these patients to recover their sense of hearing, electrical signals must be sent directly to the auditory brainstem. Researchers have developed a soft electronic interface using a highly elastic implant that conforms neatly to the curved surface of the auditory brainstem and can send highly targeted electrical signals.
During a five-hour surgery last October at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Kathy Sanford became the first Alzheimer's patient in the United States to have a pacemaker implanted in her brain. She is the first of up to ten patients who will be enrolled in an FDA-approved study at Ohio State's Wexner Medical Center to determine if using a brain pacemaker can improve cognitive and behavioral functioning in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The study employs the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS), the same technology used to successfully treat about 100,000 patients worldwide with movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In the study, researchers hope to determine whether DBS surgery can improve function governed by the frontal lobe and neural networks involved in cognition and behavior by stimulating certain areas of the brain with a pacemaker.
Phosphine gas has been detected in its atmosphere, which on Earth can only be produced by life. Phosphine (PH3) is a highly reactive gas that, on Earth, is only formed in significant quantities by certain types of anaerobic microorganisms.
The idea of life in the Venusian clouds isn’t new. These clouds lie in a "temperate zone" about 50-60 kilometres up, where the furnace-like heat and pressure of the lower atmosphere are sufficiently attenuated for liquid droplets to form. Life might have gotten there long ago, wafted up from the surface at a time when Venus was cooler and wetter than today. There is, however, one problem: the droplets in these clouds contain a lot of sulfuric acid: enough that anything living there would have to be adapted to survive in battery acid – or worse. "Sulfuric acid is terrible for all Earth life. So it probably has to be completely different life. Our proteins and DNA would completely dissolve in those droplets."
"We are not claiming we found life on Venus. We are claiming there is something really unknown, and it might be life."
We have a growing number of Solar System bodies of astrobiological interest: including Mars, Europa, Enceladus and Titan. Now, we have raised Venus higher up on the ladder of interesting targets.
The research is published in a paper in the journal Nature Astronomy.
At right: Hebrew ostraca from Tel Arad. Credit: Michael Cordonsky, TAU and the Israel Antiquities Authority
Four years ago, a multi-disciplinary team from Tel Aviv University used state-of-the-art image processing and machine learning algorithms to analyse 18 ancient texts dating to around 600BCE uncovered at the Tel Arad military post in southern Israel in the 1960s. They initially concluded that these were written by no fewer than four different authors, then upped that number to six. When Yana Gerber examined the ostraca (fragments of pottery vessels containing ink inscriptions) she concluded that the texts were in fact written by no fewer than 12 authors.
That caused more than a little interest given that Tel Arad was a small post housing between 20 and 30 soldiers at a time when it was thought literacy was as an exclusive domain in the hands of a few royal scribes.
"I delved into the microscopic details of these inscriptions written by people from the First Temple period," she says, "from routine issues such as orders concerning the movement of soldiers and the supply of wine, oil, and flour, through correspondence with neighbouring fortresses, to orders that reached the Tel Arad fortress from the high ranks of the Judahite military system."
Whatever the age, handwriting is made up of unconscious habit patterns, Gerber says, and handwriting identification is based on the principle that these writing patterns are unique to each person and no two people write exactly alike.
Researchers believe the findings shed new light on Judahite society on the eve of the destruction of the First Temple in 587BCE.
"If in a remote place like Tel Arad there was, over a short period of time, a minimum of 12 authors of 18 inscriptions, out of the population of Judah which is estimated to have been no more than 120,000 people, it means that literacy was not the exclusive domain of a handful of royal scribes in Jerusalem."
More than 3.1 million acres have burned in California this year, part of a record fire season that still has four months to go. A suffocating cloud of smoke has veiled the West Coast for days, extending more than a thousand miles above the Pacific. And the extreme fire behavior that’s been witnessed this year hasn’t just been wild — it’s virtually unprecedented in scope and scale.
Fire tornadoes have spun up by the handful in at least three big wildfires in the past three weeks, based on radar data. Giant clouds of ash and smoke have generated lightning. Wildfire plumes have soared up to 10 miles high, above the cruising altitude of commercial jets.
Scientists have been scrambling to collect as much data on these wildfires as possible, hoping to unlock the secrets to their extreme behavior and fury. Neil Lareau, a professor of atmospheric sciences in the department of physics at the University of Nevada at Reno closely studies pyrocumulus clouds, towering explosion-like plumes of heat that develop above intense blazes. The smoke plume of the Creek Fire in the Sierra Nevadas soared to 55,000 feet. That’s taller than many of the tornadic thunderstorms that roll across Oklahoma and Kansas each spring.
Before 2020, only a few fires had ever produced documented fire tornadoes in the United States; now they are being seen every week or two. The Creek Fire has produced a number of clockwise-spinning fire tornadoes. That’s opposite to how most tornadoes spin in the Northern Hemisphere.
Mechanical engineers have discovered a way to produce more electricity from heat than thought possible by creating a silicon chip, also known as a 'device,' that converts more thermal radiation into electricity. This could lead to devices such as laptop computers and cellphones with much longer battery life and solar panels that are much more efficient at converting radiant heat to energy.
"You put the heat back into the system as electricity. Right now, we're just dumping it into the atmosphere. It's heating up your room, for example, and then you use your AC to cool your room, which wastes more energy."
Nitrogen oxides emitted in aircraft exhaust increase the production of ozone, a major greenhouse gas, but they also destroy methane, a big contributor to atmospheric warming. Also contrails heat and cool the planet at the same time by trapping atmospheric heat while reflecting sunlight. The net result is that contrails are only about half as bad as previously thought.
NASA’s Orion, the spacecraft designed to carry American astronauts to the Moon as part of the agency’s Artemis program, just completed its System Acceptance Review and Design Certification Review. In other words, Orion is officially fit to embark on its maiden voyage as soon as next year. An uncrewed test flight is slated for November 2021. The first crewed mission, Artemis II, is expected to launch in August 2023.
The thorough review included system tests, inspection reports, and detailed analyses of every part of the spacecraft. It also signifies "the final formal milestone to pass before integration with the Space Launch System rocket," according to a NASA statement.
Doctors and scientists convened by the World Health Organization performed the analysis.
In multiple studies involving a total of 1,700 patients, a number of corticosteroids—anti-inflammatory drugs that can damp the effects of an overactive immune system—helped reduce deaths from COVID-19 by about a third, compared with patients who didn’t receive steroids, according to the analysis published Wednesday in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
The study found relatively consistent benefits for using the drugs in severely ill patients: Of 678 severely ill patients who received steroids, 32.7% died, compared with 41.5% of patients receiving usual care or placebo.
Scientists and physicians involved in the meta-analysis said the results raise hope that cheap, widely available drugs may become standard treatments for severe cases of COVID-19. The results are especially encouraging because of the consistency of the benefit to patients.
In a letter to governors dated Aug. 27, Robert Redfield, director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said states "in the near future" will receive permit applications from McKesson Corporation, which has contracted with CDC to distribute vaccines to places including state and local health departments and hospitals.
Initially available vaccines will either be approved by the Food and Drug Administration or authorized by the agency under its emergency powers. Redfield said that officials were preparing "for what I anticipate will be reality, is that there’ll be one or more vaccines available for us in November, December."
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Director Dr. Robert Redfield said he’s had to spend time encouraging employees, and swatting away negative comments. He also warned that the upcoming holiday could lead to a new surge in COVID-19 diagnoses. Spikes in cases were seen both after Memorial Day and Independence Day, and Redfield is concerned about the same following Labor Day — which would reverse progress towards stability in case trends nationwide.
Mastodons migrated vast distances across North America in response to dramatic climate change during the ice ages of the Pleistocene.
American mastodons (Mammut americanum) went extinct about 11,000 years ago, along with the likes of mammoths, sabre-toothed cats and giant ground sloths. Until then, the mastodon was among the largest living land animals, roaming widely from Beringia, which historically joined Russia and America, east to Nova Scotia and south to Central Mexico. Mastodons were living in Alaska at a time when it was warm, as well as Mexico and parts of Central America. There was constant movement back and forth, in response to warming climate conditions and melting ice sheets.
The research suggests that traces of the sun's 'temporary binary companion' are seen in the Oort cloud.
The research, published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, suggests that traces of the sun's "temporary binary companion" are seen in the Oort cloud, "the most distant region of our Solar System."
"Previous models have had difficulty producing the expected ratio between scattered disk objects and outer Oort cloud objects," study lead author Amir Siraj said in a statement. "The binary capture model offers significant improvement and refinement, which is seemingly obvious in retrospect: most Sun-like stars are born with binary companions."
If the sun did have a partner that helped form the early solar system, we'll likely never find it, the researchers acknowledged. Passing stars in the birth cluster would have removed the companion from the sun through their gravitational influence. Before the loss of the binary, however, the solar system already would have captured its outer envelope of objects, namely the Oort cloud and the Planet Nine population. The sun's long-lost companion could now be anywhere in the Milky Way,
Ninety-four percent of Americans who died from COVID-19 had other “types of health conditions and contributing causes” in addition to the virus, according to a new CDC report.
Respiratory conditions such as influenza and pneumonia, respiratory failure and respiratory arrest, as well as circulatory conditions such as hypertensive diseases, cardiac arrest and heart failure are on the list. Other conditions included sepsis, diabetes, renal failure and Alzheimer’s disease. As of Monday, the US has surpassed 6 million coronavirus cases and 183,000 deaths, Johns Hopkins University statistics show.
The worldwide race is on to find a COVID-19 vaccine. According to the World Health Organisation there are currently 31 vaccine candidates undergoing various phases of clinical trials around the world, and another 142 in pre-clinical evaluation.
Clinical trials must be passed to prove efficacy and safety. As COVID-19 vaccines enter clinical trials, they must pass escalating steps to prove their efficacy and safety. Clinical trials are conducted in phases, each with slightly different objectives and increasing numbers of volunteers. This is primarily to ensure subject safety but also to make sure the process is as cost-effective as possible. The data from each phase is thoroughly reviewed and must show both safety as well as the desired effect before progressing from one phase to the next.
There is a Pre-clinical phase, plus four Phases of testing and distribution.
The Food and Drug Administration announced Sunday it was issuing an emergency authorization for convalescent plasma treatment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. President Donald Trump touted the promise of plasma at Sunday evening's White House briefing. "This is a powerful therapy that transfuses very, very strong antibodies from the blood of recovered patients to help treat patients battling a current infection," Trump said. "It's had an incredible rate of success." FDA Commissioner Dr. Stephen Hahn said that the expedited approval was the result of the administration's work to "cut back red tape."
The announcement comes amid the high-pressure push to pinpoint an effective treatment for COVID-19. Blood plasma treatment, which has some data to support it, has been eyed with high hopes, although officials say that clinical data from randomized controlled trials is still being collected.
Officials ask public to be on alert, report sightings
It's an ominous first for South Carolina: a sighting of a foreign, egg-loving lizard that can grow several feet long and pose a threat to animals across the state, according to officials from the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. The tegu lizard is already established in both Georgia and Florida.
Black and white tegu lizards can reach up to 4 feet in length and weigh more than 10 pounds as adults. Tegus are voracious omnivorous lizards that eat a variety of prey including birds, small mammals, reptiles and amphibians, fruits, vegetables, insects and eggs.
As a non-native species, tegus in the wild in South Carolina are not protected by state wildlife laws or regulations. For more information about black and white tegus, including natural history and identifying characteristics, see https://georgiawildlife.com/tegus.
The "no-earlier-than" launch target assumes official NASA certification following a detailed review of data collected during a piloted Crew Dragon test flight earlier this summer. So far, officials say, no major issues have come to light that would prevent clearance to proceed with operational space station crew rotation missions. If that holds up, the Crew Dragon capsule, perched atop a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, would blast off from historic pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center around 5:47 a.m. EDT on October 23rd.
On board will be NASA astronauts Mike Hopkins and Shannon Walker, making their second space flight each, rookie astronaut Victor Glover, and veteran Japanese flier Soichi Noguchi, making his third flight to the space station. If all goes well, they will dock at the station's forward port the day after launch. Current plans call for Hopkins, Glover, Walker and Noguchi to spend six months aboard the station, returning to Earth at the end of April.
NASA managers initially targeted late September for the Crew 1 launch, but decided to move it after the Oct. 14 launch of two cosmonauts and a NASA astronaut aboard the Soyuz MS-17/63S spacecraft.
The six lithium-ion batteries that power Ingenuity were powered up and charged August 7th.
The 'copter, which weighs 4 pounds, will let researchers understand the viability and potential of heavier-than-air vehicles on the Red Planet. Assuming Perseverance successfully touches down on the Martian surface, scheduled to take place on Feb. 18, 2021, Ingenuity will take a few test flights. Following successful deployment, Ingenuity will be powered by its solar panel and not rely on the rover for power.
The president's new medical adviser Dr. Scott Atlas weighed the risks of schoolchildren spreading the virus against those of keeping schools shut.
"The risk of the disease is extremely low for children, even less than that of seasonal flu," said Atlas, a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and a member of the think tank's working group on health care policy. "We know that the harms of locking out the children from school are enormous. And we also know, as we all would agree, that educating America's children is right at the top of the list for our nation's priorities."
A Just the News poll with Scott Rasmussen found that by a margin of 45% to 29% registered voters think that in the event a school does not offer in-person education, parents should "be able to use public school funding to have their children attend a different school that offers in-person teaching."
You may have felt (we did, here in Mauldin!) the ground shake a little after 8 a.m. Sunday. The US Geological Survey (USGS) reports a moderate 5.1 magnitude earthquake occurred at 8:07 a.m. August 9, centered approximately 2 kilometers (1.25 miles) south southeast of Sparta, NC, near the North Carolina, Virginia border.
The rover touched down on Mars' Gale Crater on Aug. 5, 2012. Since touchdown, the rover journeyed more than 14 miles (23 kilometers), drilling 26 rock samples and scooping six soil samples along the way as it revealed that ancient Mars was indeed suitable for life. Studying the textures and compositions of ancient rock strata is helping scientists piece together how the Martian climate changed over time, losing its lakes and streams until it became the cold desert it is today.
Dr. James Todaro stood on the steps of the Supreme Court last week to join fellow doctors in touting hydroxychloroquine as a viable early-stage treatment for those who contract the coronavirus — and says he was stunned by the backlash.
"It seems like a coordinated effort to discredit hydroxychloroquine."
The Food and Drug Administration has issued strict cautions about its use — though the agency says decisions about it should be left to doctors and patients.
Dr. Todaro is not the most famous member of the hydroxychloroquine club. Dr. Vladimir “Zev” Zelenko in New York did the “clinical legwork” in support of the Zelenko protocol, the controversial early treatment regimen that uses a three-drug cocktail of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and zinc.
But Dr. Todaro has been one of the most effective combatants in the public debate, instrumental in getting retractions from the world’s most prestigious medical journals and a growing social media audience.
Texas researchers from the University of Houston, Baylor University and Texas A&M University have discovered evidence for why the earth cooled dramatically 13,000 years ago, dropping temperatures by about 3 degrees Centigrade. The resolution to this case of mistaken identity recently was reported this article in the journal Science Advances.
"This work shows that the geochemical signature associated with the cooling event is not unique but occurred four times between 9,000 and 15,000 years ago. Thus, the trigger for this cooling event didn't come from space. Prior geochemical evidence for a large meteor exploding in the atmosphere instead reflects a period of major volcanic eruptions."
After a volcano erupts, the global spread of aerosols reflects incoming solar radiation away from Earth and may lead to global cooling post eruption for one to five years, depending on the size and timescales of the eruption.
"This period of rapid cooling is associated with the extinction of a number of species, including mammoths and mastodons, and coincides with the appearance of early human occupants of the Clovis tradition."
"These signatures were likely the result of major eruptions across the Northern Hemisphere, including volcanoes in the Aleutians, Cascades and even Europe." The Younger Dryas cooling lasted about 1,200 years, so a sole volcanic eruptive cause is an important initiating factor, but other Earth system changes, such as cooling of the oceans and more snow cover were needed to sustain this colder period. This research underscores that extreme climate variability since the last ice age is attributed to unique Earth-bound drivers rather than extraterrestrial mechanisms.
Harvey A. Risch, MD, PhD, Professor of Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health
In the midst of a crisis, I am fighting for a treatment that the data fully support but which, for reasons having nothing to do with a correct understanding of the science, has been pushed to the sidelines. As a result, tens of thousands of patients with COVID-19 are dying unnecessarily.
I am referring, of course, to the medication hydroxychloroquine. The combination of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin or doxycycline, and zinc are well-suited for early treatment.
Two doctors have saved the lives of hundreds of patients with these medications, but are now fighting state medical boards to save their licenses and reputations. The cases against them are completely without scientific merit. Since May 27th, seven more studies have demonstrated similar benefit.
A reverse natural experiment happened in Switzerland. On May 27, the Swiss national government banned outpatient use of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19. Around June 10, COVID-19 deaths increased four-fold and remained elevated. On June 11, the Swiss government revoked the ban, and on June 23 the death rate reverted to what it had been beforehand.
If all does go according to plan, after being gently deployed from Perseverance, Ingenuity will make at least five short hops over the Martian surface, flying as high as about 15 feet.
Weighing less than four pounds with a main body the size of a softball, there’s no room for any science experiments on Ingenuity. Martian science was never the goal of the helicopter in the first place. "This is just a demonstration of technology to show that flying on Mars is possible, but eventually we’d like to design and fly a helicopter on Mars that actually has a science mission."
The company's Unity vehicle has so far conducted only glide flights after moving into its operational base in New Mexico earlier this year. The powered ascents will see Unity ignite its hybrid rocket motor to climb to the edge of space. These tests will set the stage for Virgin Galactic to introduce its commercial service.
Six hundred individuals have so far paid deposits to take a ride on Unity, with many of these individuals having put down their money a good number of years ago. But the company's chief space officer said their wait would soon be over.
Moderna anticipates enrolling 30,000 US participants
The needed proof: Volunteers won’t know if they’re getting the real shot or a dummy version. After two doses, scientists will closely track which group experiences more infections as they go about their daily routines, especially in areas where the virus still is spreading unchecked.
An archaeological team excavated nearly 2000 stone tools from a cave in Mexico, along with plant remains and environmental DNA. The artefacts belong to a type of material culture never seen in the Americas, suggesting a previously unknown stone industry. "We can estimate humans arrived at Chiquihuite Cave as early as 33 to 31,000 years ago."
The findings do not neatly fit with a scenario in which humans first entered North America from Asia via Beringia, before heading south and developing the Clovis (stone tool) culture. "The archaeology is older than anything we have seen before and the stone tools are of a type that is unique in the Americas. Human-made flaked stone artefacts are there by the thousands, embedded in layered sedimentary deposits that are now well-dated."
"It seems likely to us that the people of Chiquihuite represent a 'failed colonisation', one which may well have left no genetically detectable heritage in today’s First Americans populations."
Scientists at Oxford University say their experimental coronavirus vaccine has been shown in an early trial to prompt a protective immune response in hundreds of people who got the shot. British researchers first began testing the vaccine in April in about 1,000 people, half of whom got the experimental vaccine. Such early trials are designed to evaluate safety and see what kind of immune response was provoked, but can’t tell if the vaccine truly protects.
The experimental COVID-19 vaccine produced a dual immune response in people aged 18 to 55 that lasted at least two months after they were immunized.
“We are seeing good immune response in almost everybody. What this vaccine does particularly well is trigger both arms of the immune system." Neutralizing antibodies are produced — molecules which are key to blocking infection. In addition, the vaccine also causes a reaction in the body’s T-cells, which help by destroying cells that have been taken over by the virus.
Larger trials evaluating the vaccine’s effectiveness, involving about 10,000 people in the U.K. as well as participants in South Africa and Brazil are still underway. Another big trial is slated to start in the U.S. soon, aiming to enroll about 30,000 people.
Last week, American researchers announced that the first COVID-19 vaccine tested there boosted people’s immune systems just as scientists had hoped and the shots will now enter the final phase of testing.
Nearly two dozen potential vaccines are in various stages of human testing worldwide, with a handful entering necessary late-stage testing to prove effectiveness.
Florida COVID-19 numbers have been making waves in the news as of late but they may not be telling the real story, according to one hospital and a report of multiple testing laboratories.
Some hospitals and labs in Florida have been reporting up to 100% positivity rates, meaning that 100% of people who come in and get tested end up testing positive for COVID-19.
A report showed that Orlando Health had a 98 percent positivity rate. However, when contacted, the hospital confirmed errors in the report. Orlando Health's positivity rate is only 9.4 percent, not 98 percent as in the report.
Florida's record count of infections may be overestimated by 30%.
The vaccine it is developing has shown to induce a "rapid and strong" immune response against COVID-19, stating it will begin late-stage testing in less than two weeks.
The company said it will start the third study phase of the vaccine candidate on July 23 with 30,000 participants, stating its study protocol has been reviewed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is aligned with its guidance on clinical trial design.
Archaeological sites could fill vast historical gaps.
One site, at Flying Foam Passage, was estimated to be at least 8500 years old and bore evidence of human activity associated with a freshwater spring 14 metres deep. The other was at Cape Bruguieres, with more than 260 lithic artefacts discovered up to 2.4 metres below sea level, dated to at least 7000 years old using radiocarbon and sea-level change analysis along with predictive modelling. The artefacts included various food processing, cutting, grinding and muller tools, such as a combined hammer stone and grindstone, which would have been used to grind seeds.
First reduce the amount of virus during typical infection.
It will be nearly impossible to eradicate the virus simultaneously all around the world. And when we do emerge from isolation, the virus could potentially re-establish itself. Our best chance to keep it in check in the future will be to develop a vaccine.
A vaccine must contain two components: the adjuvant, a molecule that acts as a "danger signal" to activate your immune system; the antigen, a unique molecule that acts as a "target" for the immune response to the virus.
The SARS-CoV-2 virus uses ribonucleic acid (RNA) as its genetic material. This is usually associated with high mutation rates, which can be a problem for vaccines, as viruses can mutate their antigens to evade the immune response. Fortunately, SARS-CoV-2 seems to have a moderate rate of mutation to date, meaning it should be susceptible to a vaccine.
There’s a lot we still don’t know. Importantly, for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, we don’t yet know what type of immune response is needed. We know patients who recover from COVID-19 can produce antibodies, but we don’t know what kind of antibodies. We know COVID-19 patients who develop severe disease have low numbers of T cells, but we don’t have clear evidence of whether T cells can protect against COVID-19. We know some experimental vaccine designs for MERS and SARS can make disease symptoms worse in animals, but we don’t know whether this would happen with SARS-CoV-2.
The first vaccine to make it into clinical trials in mid-March is a lipid-encapsulated mRNA vaccine. For this vaccine, a short piece of the genetic material from the virus (mRNA) is coated with an oily layer (lipid). This vaccine is now being given to volunteers in a phase I clinical trial in Seattle.
It’s a question that’s causing a crisis in astrophysics.
In the last few years, it's become clear that two of the methods previously considered to be the most precise and reliable ways to measure this have been pointing us toward different answers. In one method, we observe a large number of galaxies around us and measure how quickly they seem to be receding. The other is based on looking at the most distant light in the Universe – the cosmic microwave background – and carefully measuring the sizes of hotter and colder spots in that light to conclude something about the shape of space and the whole history of cosmic expansion.
Astronomers have always expected both methods to give us the same answer: a number called the Hubble Constant, named after the first astronomer to measure it. But as both sides get more precise data, it's becoming clear that the answers disagree. This is sometimes called the "Hubble tension"; other times it's called a "crisis in the cosmos".
One possibility is that both measurements are essentially correct, but they're not actually measuring the same thing, which would mean our big picture is incomplete, and the evolution of the cosmos is more complicated than we thought.
Batchelor's law, which helps explain how chemical concentrations and temperature variations distribute themselves in a fluid, can be seen at work in the variously sized swirls of mixing warm and cold ocean water.
Turbulence is seen as the ultimate example of chaos theory: the way a butterfly flaps its wings in Australia could be linked to whether a hurricane forms over the Caribbean Sea or not.
This would be a perpetual motion machine, if it was possible.
The very notion disregards all the energy sources and impacts between the butterfly's location and the hurricane's location, each of which is orders of magnitude greater.
Like the bow wave of a rowboat on the ocean, the energy is quickly diluted and dissipated. If it would be possible for a butterfly, it would be possible for an ocean-going rowboat; yet clearly it is not. QED
Artefacts suggest cultural interaction with Neanderthals.
Newly unearthed fossil remains offer the earliest clear evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe and suggest they had greater influence on Neanderthals than previously thought. They place humans in the mid-latitudes of Eurasia at least 45,000 years ago, three millennia before previous estimates and 8000 years before the dwindling Neanderthal populations disappeared into extinction.
More research is needed to understand human filtration of Europe and cultural impact on Neanderthals and how this may have impacted that species’ disappearance.
Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken piloted the first manned flight of the Falcon 9 on May 30. Each astronaut had previously been on on two space shuttle missions, and they spoke of their surprise at how comparatively smooth the SpaceX launch was.
"What I thought was really neat was how sensitive we were to the throttling of the Merlin engines."
Musk is still aiming to launch the first ships to Mars by 2022. These ships will hold cargo designed to support a future manned mission. That mission will come in 2024, the next time when the Earth and Mars are close again.
From these two initial missions, the plan would be to continue sending rockets to the red planet until there were enough resources to become a self-sustaining civilization. This, he suggested Thursday, would take "about a dozen transfer windows." Earth and Mars align approximately every 26 months, meaning this process could take around 25 years. That would mean that a self-sustaining Mars city could emerge before 2050.
Barring weather or other unforeseen problems, the 24-story-tall SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket is due to lift off at 3:22 p.m. EDT today, propelling astronauts Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken aloft on a 19-hour ride to the International Space Station.
Hurley and Behnken are scheduled to launch at 4:33 p.m. EDT from launch pad 39A of the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, which was also used for the Apollo and space shuttle programs. The launch will be the first time a private company, rather than a national government, sends astronauts into orbit.
ESA: In an area stretching from Africa to South America, Earth’s magnetic field is gradually weakening. Scientists are using data from @esa_swarm to improve our understanding of this area known as the 'South Atlantic Anomaly'. Since 1970, the anomaly has been growing in size, as well as moving westward at a pace of approximately 20 kilometres (12 miles) per year.
In the last two centuries, Earth's magnetic field has lost about 9 percent of its strength on average.
NASA is inviting the public to help celebrate a historic milestone in human spaceflight as it prepares for #LaunchAmerica – the first flight into orbit of American astronauts on American rockets from American soil since the end of the space shuttle era in 2011.
NASA’s SpaceX Demo-2 test flight, which is targeted for lift off at 4:33 p.m. EDT Wednesday, May 27, this mission will send NASA astronauts Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley to the International Space Station as part of the agency’s Commercial Crew Program. Members of the public can attend the launch virtually, receiving mission updates and opportunities normally received by on-site guests.
An early trial of its coronavirus vaccine candidate produced positive results. All 45 volunteers in the trial produced antibodies that may help protect them against COVID-19. The company hopes to soon start a mid-stage study of the vaccine candidate after the phase-one trial and move to a late-stage trial in July.
Moderna is aiming to have a vaccine ready for emergency use in the fall — a timeline that has never been seen for vaccine development.
100 days since there were any recorded sunspots. So far this year, the Sun has been blank 76 percent of the time. Last year, 2019, the Sun was blank 77 percent of the time.  Two consecutive years of record-setting spotlessness adds up to a very deep solar minimum. This is called a solar minimum, and it is a regular part of the sunspot cycle.
The sun’s magnetic field has become weak, allowing extra cosmic rays into the solar system. Excess cosmic rays pose a health hazard to astronauts and polar air travelers, affect the electro-chemistry of Earth’s upper atmosphere and may help trigger lightning.
Ozone has been proven to kill 99.999 percent of pathogens in the air, including SARS Coronavirus and influenzas such as H5N1. In past studies, 99 percent of viruses have been destroyed and showed damage to their envelope proteins after 30 seconds of exposure to ozone. This can result in the virus's failure to attach to normal, healthy cells, and the breakdown of the single-stranded RNA can lead to the destruction of the virus.
Viruses are small particles made up of crystals. Ozone destroys viruses by attacking the nucleic acid core, thus damaging the viral RNA. After destroying these particles, ozone dissipates and leaves breathable oxygen as its only byproduct. COVID-19 is an enveloped virus.
Using ozonated water for handwashing kills bacteria and viruses on impact. Ozone is created by special generators that release it in the air for purification or infuse it into water for disinfecting surfaces. More information about ozone generators and how they work can be found here.
Antibiotics treat bacterial infections. Bacteria are cellular.
Unlike bacteria, viruses cannot replicate independently outside a host cell. There is a debate over whether they are really living organisms at all.
To replicate, viruses enter a host cell and hijack its machinery. Once inside, some viruses lie dormant, some replicate slowly and leak from cells over a prolonged period, and others make so many copies that the host cell bursts and dies. The newly replicated virus particles then disperse and infect new host cells.
Different viruses vary from each other much more than different bacteria do. There is extreme diversity between different viruses. Some have DNA genomes while others have RNA genomes, and some are single-stranded while others are double-stranded. This makes it practically impossible to create a broad spectrum antiviral drug that will work across different virus types...
The newly discovered black hole is dubbed HR 6819. The star system was only spotted after two companion stars provided researchers with information on its whereabouts. It can be seen on a clear night in the Southern Hemisphere without the use of a binocular or telescope, making it the first black hole to be seen without tools.
Though the black hole itself is invisible (as all black holes are) and does not have violent interactions with objects around it, the researchers are nonetheless certain it's there. “An invisible object with a mass at least 4 times that of the Sun can only be a black hole."
The artist’s impression below shows the orbits of the objects in the HR 6819 triple system. This system is made up of an inner binary with one star (orbit in blue) and a newly discovered black hole (orbit in red), as well as a third object, another star, in a wider orbit (also in blue). (Credit: ESO)
Researchers have discovered a strong correlation between vitamin D deficiency and mortality rates from the novel coronavirus
Patients from countries with high COVID-19 mortality rates, such as Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, had lower levels of vitamin D compared to patients in countries that were not as severely affected.
Pancreatic cancer does not respond to certain anticancer treatments that boost immune responses.  A mechanism active in tumour cells that contributes to this evasion of immune targeting has been uncovered.
President Trump announced Friday that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized the emergency use of Gilead Science's experimental antiviral drug remdesivir to treat coronavirus patients after early results of a clinical study indicated the drug helps speed recovery.  Trump announced the news at the White House alongside Gilead CEO Daniel O'Day and FDA Commissioner Stephen Hahn.
Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation's top infectious disease expert and the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, praised the drug Wednesday.
Seven possible vaccines had been given the green light for testing.  One of the groups approved for clinical trials on humans is from the United States.  Four are from China, one is from England and the last is made up of both Americans and Europeans.
Gilead Sciences said "positive data" emerging from a clinical trial studying one of its drugs as a potential treatment for COVID-19.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases’ study of remdesivir, an experimental antiviral, has reached its primary endpoint, meaning the drug was found to be effective in the trial.
There is no proven COVID-19 treatment yet, though hundreds of clinical trials are ongoing all around the world to find one. Scientists have high hopes for remdesivir, which was originally developed as a potential treatment for Ebola.
Gilead said the findings were inconclusive because the study was terminated early
Gilead Sciences is responding to a World Health Organization report that its experimental antiviral drug failed to help patients with severe COVID-19 in a clinical trial conducted in China. Gilead coronavirus drug could still be promising despite leaked negative results.
"We believe the post included inappropriate characterizations of the study. The study was terminated early due to low enrollment and, as a result, it was underpowered to enable statistically meaningful conclusions," according to a Gilead statement. "As such, the study results are inconclusive, though trends in the data suggest a potential benefit for remdesivir, particularly among patients treated early in disease."
Health records from 5,700 patients hospitalized showed that 94 percent had a disease other than COVID-19
People with a serious chronic disease should take special precaution and seek medical attention early, should they start showing signs and symptoms of being infected, or know that they've been exposed to someone who has this virus.
Medical officials have vastly underestimated the overall ability of the virus to mutate, in finding that different strains have affected different parts of the world, leading to potential difficulties in finding an overall cure.
More than 100 South Koreans who fully recovered from coronavirus have tested positive for a second time. Last week there were 51 cases of patients testing positive after being cleared of the virus. There have been no cases of the relapsed patients spreading the virus to anyone else.
From the Wall Street Journal:
Q: Is it useful to take common-cold remedies to help fight the virus?
A: Experts say remedies such as DayQuil are helpful for controlling the virus's symptoms. But they aren't a cure and won't prevent you from infecting others.
Two researchers from Göttingen University claimed countries have only spotted six per cent of all COVID-19 cases, on average. Rates - which the researchers said were true up to March 31 - were staggeringly low in Britain (1.2 per cent), Italy (3.5 per cent), Spain (1.7 per cent) and the US (1.6 per cent). Because of the huge disparity, they described the official tallies trotted out by health ministers across the world each day as 'rather meaningless'.
Up to 15 per cent of people in hard-hit German town may already have immunity. If 15 per cent of people do have antibodies, then Germany's actual death rate could be as low as 0.37 per cent. This is five times lower than the current calculated level.
"This means a gradual relaxation of the lockdown is now possible."
With far more people infected than previously thought, Europe as a whole could be closer to herd immunity than expected.
"We've engineered neutralizing antibodies that go and block the virus. The coronavirus, if you were to zoom in on it, you would see a series, a ring of spikes, and it uses those spikes to invade human cells. We've identified a series of super potent antibodies that block those spikes and therefore make the virus no longer infectious."
These are the same army scientists who helped develop vaccines for anthrax, the plague and Ebola. Now, they have been working double shifts growing large amounts of the COVID-19 virus at this sprawling lab complex.
"We can test about 300 drugs or compounds in each plate."
They have used sneeze labs -- a technology the U.S. Army invented -- to test how the virus has spread through the air. "It would mimic you and I walking through someone's sneeze. There's a swirl of virus within droplets, so it doesn't exist just in air, but it's in fine droplets of many different sizes. Large droplets would land on your mouth and eyes, maybe on your hands, on surfaces, small droplets. You breathe them into your nostrils. Some of them make it past your projections, get deep into the lungs."
"We're going to find this vaccine and we're gonna win in the end."
The emergency-use authorization is for two oral prescription drugs, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, which are used primarily to treat malaria, but are now being investigated by federal agencies. 30 million doses of hydroxychloroquine sulfate and one million doses of chloroquine phosphate have been donated. The FDA will allow the drugs to be distributed and prescribed by doctors to hospitalized teen and adult patients with COVID-19, as appropriate.
As of early Monday morning, the coronavirus has infected more than 143,000 people in the U.S. and at least 2,513 people have died from the respiratory illness.
As many as 10% of recovered coronavirus patients in China tested positive again after being discharged from the hospital, according to a report. So far there is no evidence to suggest that they are infectious. The five patients who tested positive again did not have any symptoms and none of their close contacts had been infected.
Surveillance of similar patients showed that 80 to 90% had no trace of the virus in their system one month after being discharged from the hospital.
Additionally, health officials around the world are testing the concept of taking plasma from someone who has been infected, processing it, and injecting the antibodies into a sick person to stimulate their immune system.
Keeping the Wuhan virus away - recommended practices from Johns Hopkins University:
The virus is not a living organism, but a protein molecule (DNA) covered by a protective layer of lipid (fat), which, when absorbed by the cells of the ocular, nasal or buccal mucosa, changes their genetic code. (mutation) and convert them into aggressors and multiplier cells.
Since the virus is not a living organism but a protein molecule, it is not killed but decays on its own. The disintegration time depends on the temperature, humidity and type of material where it lies.
The virus is very fragile; the only thing that protects it is a thin outer layer of fat. That is why any soap or detergent is the best remedy because the foam CUTS the FAT (that is why you have to rub so much: for 20 seconds or more, to make a lot of foam) By dissolving the fat layer, the protein molecule disperses and breaks down on its own.
HEAT melts fat; this is why it is so good to use water above 25C for washing hands, clothes and everything. In addition, hot water makes more foam and that makes it even more useful.
Alcohol or any mixture with alcohol over 65% DISSOLVES ANY FAT, especially the external lipid layer of the virus.
Any mix with 1 part bleach and 5 parts water directly dissolves the protein, breaks it down from the inside.
Oxygenated water helps long after soap, alcohol, and chlorine, because peroxide dissolves the virus protein, but you have to use it pure and it hurts your skin.
NO BACTERICIDE OR ANTIBIOTIC SERVES. The virus is not a living organism like bacteria; antibiotics cannot kill what is not alive.
NEVER shake used or unused clothing, sheets or cloth. While it is glued to a porous surface, it is very inert and disintegrates only after
- 3 hours (fabric and porous),
- 4 hours (copper and wood)
- 24 hours (cardboard),
- 42 hours (metal), and
- 72 hours (plastic).
But if you shake it or use a feather duster, the virus molecules float in the air for up to 3 hours and can lodge in your nose.
The virus molecules remain very stable in external cold, or artificial cold as produced by air conditioners in houses and cars.
They also need moisture to stay stable, and especially darkness. Therefore, dehumidified, dry, warm and bright environments will degrade it faster.
UV LIGHT on any object that may contain it breaks down the virus protein. For example, to disinfect and reuse a mask is perfect. Be careful, it also breaks down collagen (which is protein) in the skin.
The virus CANNOT go through healthy skin.
Vinegar is NOT useful because it does not break down the protective layer of fat.
Neither SPIRITS nor VODKA serve. The strongest vodka is 40% alcohol, and you need 65%.
there are a few alcohols more than 65%, and Vodka does come in 50%, but still not strong enough to kill the virus.
LISTERINE IF IT SERVES! It is 65% alcohol.
The more confined space, the more concentration of the virus there can be. The more open or naturally ventilated, the less.
You have to wash your hands before and after touching mucosa, food, locks, knobs, switches, remote control, cell phone, watches, computers, desks, TV, etc. And when using the bathroom.
You have to Moisturize dry hands from so much washing them, because the molecules can hide in the micro cracks. The thicker the moisturizer, the better.
Also keep your NAILS SHORT so that the virus does not hide there.
"Fear of Covid-19 is based on its high estimated case fatality rate—2% to 4% of people with confirmed Covid-19 have died, according to the World Health Organization and others. We believe that estimate is deeply flawed. The true fatality rate is the portion of those infected who die, not the deaths from identified positive cases."
The deaths from identified positive cases are “misleading” because of limited data.
"The real fatality rate could in fact be closer to 0.06%."
Protective N95 face masks, regular hand-washing, avoiding any contact with the infected person, coughing and sneezing hygiene, adequate isolation of the affected are the measures suggested.
Death does not happen inevitably with COVID-19 infection. The mortality rate is only 2%, much lesser than the similar strains causing illness like SARS or MERS in the past. Majority of cases are mild infections and the number of uncomplicated cases are on the rise. Death occurs due to pulmonary complications, mainly pneumonia and respiratory failure.
In any case, death is NOT imminent with this virus.
Roughly 35 companies and academic institutions are rushing to create a vaccine and at least four have tested it on animals. Moderna, a biotech company in Massachusetts, has already shipped the first batches of its COVID-19 vaccine to the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. It was said to be ready for human trials in April, but the first patient will receive an experimental dose today.
EPA publishes a list of potent ammunition against coronavirus
The Environmental Protection Agency has published a list of disinfecting chemicals and products that have been verified to be effective against the coronavirus.
Because viruses are unique kinds of microorganisms, not all antibacterial products will have the same degree of effectiveness; however, the soaps and cleaners on this list are known to dissolve the virus's "envelope," or outer coating.
In a spot of good news, the EPA states enveloped viruses like SARS-CoV2 are among the easiest to kill using the products on the list. This is partially because the virus envelopes are composed of lipids, which are fatty, oily types of compounds.
Just how you can wash grease from pans, you can scrub away the virus’s shell with vigorous, soapy handwashing.
Notable names on the list include the following widely available cleaning products:
The discovery will simplify the control of individual atoms placed in nano electric devices, with implications for overhauling nuclear magnetic resonance – a technique used in a diverse range of fields such as modern physics, medicine, chemistry, and mining.
Homo erectus was possibly the most successful and longest surviving of any early human. They first popped into the fossil record some 2 million years ago and only went extinct in the last 50,000-100,000 years.
A tar-backed tool from the present-day North Sea reveals the use of complex technology by Neandertals.   This article reports the discovery of a 50,000-year-old birch tar-hafted flint tool found off the present-day coastline of The Netherlands.   The production of birch tar adhesives and multicomponent tools was a major technological development.   It is considered complex technology and has a prominent place in discussions about the evolution of human behavior.   This find provides evidence on the technological capabilities of Neandertals and illuminates the currently debated conditions under which these technologies could be maintained.   The find demonstrates that birch tar was a routine part of the Neandertal technological repertoire.   Dating the geological provenance of the artifact firmly associates it with a host of Middle Paleolithic stone tools and a Neandertal fossil.
The object is a piece of birch tar, encompassing one-third of a flint flake.   This find demonstrates that Neandertals mastered complex adhesive production strategies and composite tool use.   The discovery also shows that a large population size is not a necessary condition for complex behavior and technology.
In a related article, the author states that "Neandertals used artificial adhesives to haft, or better handle, stone tools across their entire geographic range and since at least 200,000 years ago."   That is almost 130,000 years prior to H. Sapiens' final mental evolutionary change 70,000 years ago, and about 145,000 years before H. Sapiens made their way into the parts of Eurasia where H. Neanderthalis lived.
This is clear evidence that Neandertals possessed the ability for abstract conceptualization.   Abstract conceptualization is the mental capability that makes possible reasoning and thinking, which replaces the instinctual behavior that is otherwise universal among animals.   This discovery also makes clear that abstract conceptualization at some level preceded H. Sapiens.
"Scientists have extracted a unique geologic record of the single worst day in the history of life on Earth, when a city-sized asteroid smashed into the planet 65 million years ago, wiping out the dinosaurs and three-quarters of all other life."
"Blasted a hole 100 miles wide and 12 miles deep."
"Debris deposited in layers almost minute-by-minute at the heart of the impact during the first day of a global catastrophe."
130 feet of sediment - "We can read it on the scale of minutes and hours."
"The land was clearly on fire."
"Temperatures world-wide dropped by as much as 30 degrees Fahrenheit for decades."
Several of these scientists co-authored or reviewed portions of Climate Change Reconsidered, a series of comprehensive climate science volumes compiled by the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC).
Among the highlights of the EIKE conference, scientists will discuss the latest science regarding natural climate cycles, sea level, solar variability versus atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, shortcomings regarding renewable power, flaws in asserted temperature histories, the benefits of a warmer world, desertification, and ulterior goals of climate activists.
“The scientific evidence and conclusions reported by climate scientists are far different than what the environmental left and their legacy media allies would like the public to believe.”
Measured temperature vs. what NOAA reports - See the fraud.
Historic temperatures do not show a warming trend.